Purines are one of the most common chemical compounds on the planet. There are two kinds of purines: endogenous and exogenous. Exogenous purines are absorbed by the body through the foods that you eat, whereas, endogenous purines are made directly by the body itself. Uric acid forms when purines are broken down in the digestive system. Eating too many purines can cause a buildup of uric acid in the body. If uric acid remains in the body for too long, it can crystallize and cause a number of health risks. Therefore, it’s important to moderate the number of purines that you consume.
Purine Rich Foods
Purines are prevalent in nature and part of a normal diet, however, depending on your diet, you may be consuming too many. If you’re predisposed to hyperuricemia or any related health risks, you may want to consider moderating your purine intake or seek alternative food options. Here are 4 foods with high purine levels that you should avoid:
Although a good source of nutrition in other contexts, organ meats are notably high in purines and should be avoided by anyone looking to eat a more gout-friendly diet.
Different kinds of alcohol have varying levels of purines. Many people with gout seek out low-purine alcoholic beverages like spirits. Beer is especially high in purines and has been found to increase uric acid levels when consumed regularly.
Sardines and anchovies have some of the highest levels of purines out of the various kinds of fish.
Multiple studies have established a link between hyperuricemia, gout, and similar conditions, with excess consumption of sugar. Purines found in high-fructose corn syrup, in particular, are correlated with increased crystal deposits and their associated symptoms.
High-Purine Rich Foods
- Anchovies, sardines, scallops, and mussels
- Tuna, codfish, herring, and haddock
- Wild game meats, like goose and duck
- Organ meats, such as brains, heart, kidney, liver, and sweetbreads
- Gravies and sauces made with meat
- Yeast extracts taken in the form of a supplement
Low-Purine Rich Foods
- Eggs, nuts, and peanut butter
- Low-fat and fat-free cheese and ice cream
- Skim or 1% milk
- Soup made without meat extract or broth
- Vegetables that are not on the medium-purine list below
- All fruit and fruit juices
- Bread, pasta, rice, cake, cornbread, and popcorn
- Water, soda, tea, coffee, and cocoa
- Sugar, sweets, and gelatin
- Fat and oil
Why You Should Eat Fewer Purines
Your body successfully digests and expels most purines without difficulty, however, this isn’t always the case. If your digestive system isn’t able to fully process purines, or if you eat too many purines regularly, you may experience excess amounts of uric acid in your body. A number of health risks may arise if either occurs, such as:
Increased Diabetes Risk
Excessive purine intake can lead to hyperuricemia, a condition caused when there’s too much uric acid in the bloodstream. Researchers have found that high uric acid levels in the body are correlated with an increased risk of diabetes.
Too many purines in the body can cause uric acid in the kidneys to crystallize and harden, resulting in kidney stones. Serious cases of kidney stones can be quite painful and may even need surgical intervention to eliminate entirely.
Arthritis and Gout
Gout is a specific kind of arthritis caused by deposits of uric acid crystals that accumulate in the joints, often around elbows, knees, or hands. Gout inflammation can produce serious discomfort and should be treated by a doctor when there’s a flare-up.